-Должно быть умерший шёл из поликлиники.

- Но как вы догадались, Холмс?

- Бахилы, Ватсон.

Хотите блестяще строить предположения о прошедших событиях, высказывать догадки и сомнения на английском не хуже Холмса? Скорее смотрите наш вебинар о past modals of deduction. Элементарно, друзья!

 

 

1) We can use modal verbs to talk about how sure or unsure we are about something in the past just as we use modals in the present with a slight change in the form.  

He must be really happy about his promotion. (present deduction)

He must have been very happy when he was told about his promotion. (past deduction)

2) DEDUCTION – дедукция (метод мышления, следствием которого является логический вывод, в котором частное заключение выводится из общего)

ASSUMPTION - предположение

CONCLUSION - вывод

EVIDENCE - доказательства

CERTAINTY – уверенность (sureness)

POSSIBILITY – возможность, вероятность

3) FORMULA:  MODAL + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

The choice if the modal verb depends on your percent of certainty

MUST – if you are almost sure, 99% sure

COULD/MAY/MIGHT – if you are 50% sure

CAN’T/COULDN’T – 0-1% certainty

4) EXAMPLES

You must have been very pleased when you received the results of the annual evaluation.

(You assume that the person worked hard for these results, so you are sure he is happy with them)

He must have forgotten his phone at home again. He’s not answering.

(You made such conclusion based on previous experience, so you are almost sure)

I must have left my keys in the car. I can’t find them.

(Last time you saw the keys they were in the car, so you make such a conclusion)

He was supposed to be here an hour ago, but he could have been stuck in a traffic jam.

(You are not sure about the reason he is late, you make an assumption)

He may have said he was coming but I can’t really remember. I wasn’t listening.

(You weren’t listening, you are 50% sure)

I might have been here once but I can’t really remember.

(50% sure)

I can’t have seen them that night. I was in the other city.

(There is 0% chance since you were in the other city)

She can’t have missed that appointment. She’s really punctual.

(You assume there is low chance, because you know how punctual she is most of the time)

She can’t have applied for this job. She doesn’t have qualifications.

(You are surprised; you know the fact that she doesn’t have qualifications, so you make your assumption based on it)

 

 

Well done!

Now it's time to do some exercises! 

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